favourite links
favourite games
Indymedia - Independent Media Service

Emlyn Hughes International Soccer

Netsoccer

italian kick off 2 association Abandonware Ring

SWOS List

Firebox

Kick Off World of Soccer Blog

TART!

New Star Soccer

abandongames dot com
Sensible Soccer
Yoda Soccer

Kick Off 2

Pulp of Soccer

Brazil

From Kick Off World of Soccer - wikickoff

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Template:Lang-pt or Template:Lang, Template:Audio<ref>Some possible pronunciations:IPA: Template:IPA, Template:IPA, Template:IPA, Template:IPA, Template:IPA . Brazilian Portuguese has no official standard of pronunciation, and it may change depending on the region. European Portuguese pronunciation of the official name of Brazil is: Template:IPA . See Portuguese Phonology for more details.</ref>), is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world in both area and population. It is also the second most populous country in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it is the easternmost country of America and it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French department of French Guiana. In fact, it borders every South American nation except for Ecuador and Chile.

The country's name is generally believed to be derived from pau-brasil (brazilwood), a tree highly valued by early colonists, though some credit the name to a mythical land mentioned in Europe during Middle Ages. Brazil is home to both extensive agricultural lands and rain forests. Exploring vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is South America's leading economic power and a regional leader.

Brazilian society is still heavily influenced by Portugal's 300 year colonization. Portuguese is the official language, and the Roman Catholic religion is adopted by most of its people, with a number of adherents never seen in any other country. The population is composed mainly of descendants from European immigrants and Africans brought during the slavery times.

After declaring Independence from Portugal in 1822, Brazil became a Monarchy until a military coup deposed the emperor and established a Republic in 1889. Since then the country suffered three more coups in 1930, 1937 and 1964. In the 1980's the military regime ended and a new constitution was established, opening the way to the Brazilians' return to democracy.

Currently Brazil's greatest challenge is to reactivate its economy, which was once one of the most thriving in the world but had many problems in the last 20-30 years, while dealing with serious issues that plague many of its inhabitants, like poverty, hunger and crime.

Contents

History of Brazil

Template:Main

Image:Brazil-16-map.jpg
Ancient map of Brazil issued by the Portuguese explorers in 1519.

Brazil is thought to have been inhabited for at least 10,000 years by semi-nomadic populations before the first Portuguese explorers, led by Pedro Álvares Cabral, disembarked in 1500. Over the next three centuries, it was resettled by the Portuguese and exploited mainly for brazilwood (Pau-Brasil) at first, followed by sugarcane (Cana-de-Açúcar) agriculture, coffee beans and gold mining. The colony's source of manpower was initially composed of enslaved Amerindians, and after 1550, mainly African. In 1808, Queen Maria I of Portugal and her son and regent, the future João VI of Portugal, fleeing from the armies of Napoleon, relocated to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the royal family, nobility and government. This is the only recorded trans-continental relocation of a royal family.

Though they returned to Portugal in 1821, the interlude led to the opening of commercial ports to the United Kingdom — at the time isolated from most European ports by Napoleon — and to the elevation of Brazil to the status of a united kingdom under the Portuguese Crown. Upon João VI's departure, the remaining royal government in Rio moved to dissolve the Kingdom of Brazil and return it to the status of colony. This resulted in the small scale conflicts known as the Brazilian War of Independence. On 7 September 1822 Prince regent Dom Pedro I (later Pedro IV of Portugal) declared independence, establishing the independent Empire of Brazil. A treaty recognizing the Empire's independence was signed on 29 August, 1825 with Britain and Portugal. As the crown remained in the hands of the House of Bragança, this was more the severance of the Portuguese empire in two, than an independence movement as seen elsewhere in the Americas.

Image:Fala do Trono.jpg
Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, 1873.

The Brazilian Empire was formally a democracy in the British style, although in practice, the emperor-premier-parliament balance of power more closely resembled the autocratic Austrian Empire. Slavery was abolished in 1888, through the "Golden Law", created by Princess Isabel, and intensive European immigration created the basis for industrialization. Pedro I was succeeded by his son, Pedro II — who in old age was caught by a political dispute between the Army and the Cabinet, a crisis arising from the Paraguay War. In order to avoid a civil war between Army and Navy, Pedro II renounced the throne on 15 November 1889, when a federal republic (officially, the Republic of the United States of Brazil) was established by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil attracted well over 5 million European, Arab and Japanese immigrants. That period also saw Brazil industrialise, further colonise, and develop its interior. Brazilian democracy was replaced by dictatorships three times — 1930–1934 and 1937–1945 under Getúlio Vargas, and 1964–1985, under a succession of generals appointed by the military. Since 1985, Brazil has been internationally considered a democracy, specifically a presidential democracy; that status was affirmed in a 1993 plebiscite, in which voters were asked to choose between a presidential or parliamentary system; voters also decided not to restore the country's constitutional monarchy.

Government and Politics

Template:Main

Image:Brasilia National Congress.JPG
Brazil's National Congress is the most famous landmark in the capital, Brasilia

The capital of Brazil is Brasilia. According to the Constitution promulgated in 1988, Brazil is a federal presidential representative democratic republic, wherein the President is both head of state and head of government. One of the fundamental principles of the politics in the Republic is the multi-party system, as a guarantee of political freedom.

The administrative structure of the State is a federation; however, Brazil has included the municipalities as autonomous political entities making the federation tripartite: encompassing the Union, the States, and the municipalities. The legal system is based on Roman Law.

The Union's Executive power is exercised by the government, headed by the president, who is elected for a four-year term, and is allowed to be re-elected for one other term. Legislative power is vested in the National Congress, which is bicameral. The deputies of the Chamber of Deputies are elected every four years in a system of proportional representation by states. The members of the Federal Senate are elected for an eight-year term. The Ordinary Law making process requires the participation of the executive, which has a right to veto on new legislation, and has an exclusive prerogative of initiative of legislation on certain matters. Additionally, if relevant and urgent circumstances justify it, the executive may issue a "Provisory Measure," which has the binding force of the Law and comes into force immediately. The "Provisory Measure" retains its full power for up to 120 days, unless it is reverted by the Congress.

Administrative divisions

Template:Main

Brazil is a federation consisting of 26 states (Template:Lang) and 1 federal district (Template:Lang), making a total of 27 Federate Units.

North

  1. Roraima
  2. Amapá
  3. Amazonas
  4. Pará
  5. Tocantins
  6. Acre
  7. Rondônia

Northeast

  1. Maranhão
  2. Piauí
  3. Ceará
  4. Rio Grande do Norte
  5. Paraíba
  6. Pernambuco
  7. Alagoas
  8. Sergipe
  9. Bahia

Centre-West

  1. Mato Grosso
  2. Goiás
  3. Distrito Federal (Brasília)
  4. Mato Grosso do Sul

Southeast

  1. Minas Gerais
  2. Espírito Santo
  3. Rio de Janeiro
  4. São Paulo
South

  1. Paraná
  2. Santa Catarina
  3. Rio Grande do Sul

The Brazilian states enjoy a significant autonomy of government, law making, public security and taxation. The government of a state is headed by a Governor (Template:Lang), elected by popular vote, and also comprises its own legislative body (Template:Lang).

Each state is divided into municipalities (Template:Lang) with their own legislative council (Template:Lang) and a mayor (Template:Lang), which are autonomous and hierarchically independent from both Federal and State Government. A municipality may include other towns (Template:Lang) besides the municipal seat; those, however, have no separate government.

The Judiciary is organised at the state and federal levels within districts called Template:Lang. One Template:Lang may include several municipalities.Template:-

See also:

Major cities

The following is a list of the principal Major Cities of Brazil in order of population.

Geography

Template:Main

Brazil is characterized by the extensive low-lying Amazon Rainforest in the north and a more open terrain of hills and low mountains to the south — home to most of the Brazilian population and its agricultural base. Along the Atlantic seacoast are also found several mountain ranges, reaching roughly 2,900 metres (9,500 ft) high. The highest peak is the Pico da Neblina(Myst's Peak) reckoning 3,014 metres (9,735 ft) of altitude, in Guiana's highlands. Major rivers include the Amazon, the largest river in the world in flowing water volume, and the second-longest in the world; the Paraná and its major tributary, the Iguaçu River, where the impressive Iguaçu falls are located; the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and the Tapajós rivers.

Located mainly within the tropics, Brazil's climate has little seasonal variation. In southern most Brazil, however, there is subtropical temperate weather, occasionally experiencing frost and snow in the higher regions. Precipitation is abundant in the humid Amazon Basin, but more arid landscapes are found as well, particularly in the northeast. A number of islands in the Atlantic Ocean are part of Brazil:

Mainland Brazil is commonly geographically divided into 5 distinctive regions: North, Northeast, Centre-West, Southeast and South.

  • The North constitutes 45.27% of the surface of Brazil and it is the region with the lowest number of inhabitants. It is a fairly unindustrialised and undeveloped region (with the exception of Manaus, which hosts a tax-free industrial zone). It accommodates most of the largest rainforest of the world, the Amazon, and many indigenous tribes.
  • The Northeast has one third of Brazil's population. The region is culturally diverse, with roots from the Portuguese colonial period, Afro-Brazilian culture and some Brazilian Indian influence. It is also the poorest region of Brazil, and has long periods of dry climate. It is well-known for its beautiful coast.
  • The Central-West is the region where the Brazilian capital, Brasília, is located. despite that it has a low demographic density compared to the other regions, mostly because it is occupied by the Pantanal, the world’s largest marshlands area, and a small part of the Amazon rainforest, in its northwestern area. However, much of the region is overgrown by Cerrado, the largest savanna in the world, which has two distinct seasons: a rainy season (from October to April) and a dry one (from May to September). It is also the most important area for agriculture in the country. The most important cities are: Brasília, Goiânia, Campo Grande and Cuiabá
  • The Southeast is the richest and most densely populated region. It has more inhabitants than any other South American country, and hosts one of the largest megalopoles of the world, whereof the main cities are the country's two biggest ones; São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The region is very diverse, including the major business centre of São Paulo, the Historical cities of Minas Gerais, the world famous beaches of Rio de Janeiro, and the acclaimed coast of Espírito Santo.
  • The South is the wealthiest region (considering GDP per capita), with the best standard of living in the country. It is also the coldest region of Brazil, with occasional occurrences of frosts and snow in some of the higher altitude regions. The region has been heavily settled by European immigrants, mainly of German, Italian, and Slavic genealogy, and shows clear influences from these cultures.

Economy

Template:Main Template:See also Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool, Brazil's GDP (PPP) outweighs that of any other Latin American country, being the core economy of Mercosur. The country has been expanding its presence in world markets. Major export products include aircraft, coffee, vehicles, soybean, iron ore, orange juice, steel, textiles, footwear, corned beef and electrical equipment.

Image:Skyline from São Paulo city.JPG
São Paulo, the third largest city in the world and Brazil's economic center

According to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Brazil has the ninth largest economy in the world at Purchasing Power Parity and eleventh largest at market exchange rates. Brazil has a diversified middle income economy with wide variations in development levels. Most large industry is agglomerated in the South and South-East. The North-East is the poorest region of Brazil, but it is beginning to attract new investment. Brazil has the most advanced industrial sector in Latin America. Amounting to one-third of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. With the increased economic stability provided by the Plano Real, Brazilian and multinational businesses have invested heavily in new equipment and technology, a large proportion of which has been purchased from North American enterprises. Brazil has a diverse and sophisticated services industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector amounted to as much as 16% of GDP. Although undergoing a major overhaul, Brazilian financial services industry provides local businesses with a wide range of products and is attracting numerous new entrants, including U.S. financial firms. The São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro stock exchanges are undergoing a consolidation.

Brazilian cities vary significantly in the ease of doing business, according to the new Doing Business in Brazil report released by The World Bank Group. Brazilian cities perform better when it comes to the cost of registering property. But despite identical regulations across Brazil, there is a wide variation in the time it takes to transfer property

Although Brazil's economy is progressive and regionally important, the problems of widespread corruption, poverty and illiteracy are still major barriers to development.

Current events

Image:Boa viagem.jpg
Recife, one of the largest cities of Brazil

After decades of high inflation and several attempts to control it, Brazil embarked on an economic stabilization program, the Real Plan (named after the new currency it's introduced, the Real) in July 1994, during the Itamar Franco administration. The inflation rates, which had reached an annual level of nearly 5,000% at the end of 1993, fell sharply, reaching a low of 2.5% in 1998. The passing of the Fiscal Responsibility Law in 2000 has improved the fiscal discipline of the local and federal governments, albeit in detriment of much needed investment in infrastructure and improvement of social services.

During the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration (1995-2002), the government led efforts to replace a state-dominated economy with a market-oriented one. The Congress has approved several amendments opening the economy to greater private sector participation, and fostering the involvement of foreign investors. By the end of 2003, Brazil's privatisation program, which included the sale of steel, electricity and telecommunications firms, had generated proceeds of more than $90 billion.

In January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the Real would no longer be pegged to the U.S. dollar, which entailed a major devaluation of the Brazilian currency. The economy grew 4.4% in 2000, decreasing to 1.3% in 2001. In 2002, growing speculation that the presidential candidate considered most likely to win, Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, would default on the debt, triggered a confidence crisis that caused the economy to decelerate. However once elected Lula resumed the economic policies of his predecessor. In 2003, President Lula took an austere approach to the economy by controlling inflation and seeking current account surpluses in order to meet Brazil's debt obligations.

After a GDP increase of 0.5% in 2003, Brazil showed robust growth in 2004 of 4.9%, decreasing to the pace of 2.3% (2005); international economic growth and, consequentially, expansion of exports, contributed to this performance.

Major issues

The economy still has serious challenges to face and important reforms are still to be implemented. Serious problems involving poor infrastructure, income concentration, low quality public services, corruption, social conflicts and government bureaucracy persist and threaten to hamper economic growth, compared to other emerging countries.

The internal public debt has reached the all time record and public expenses have been increased. Taxes already represent a considerable part of national income and are a serious burden to all social classes, diminishing opportunities for investment. In addition, enterpreneurship is burdened by high licensing costs and complex authorization processes.

Current economic growth is above that of comparable Latin American countries and of China and India. Brazil has dropped 11 positions on the WEF Growth Competitiveness Index ranking from 2003 to 2005. [1]. Template:-

Environment

Template:Main

Image:River in the Amazon rainforest.jpg
The Amazon Rainforest is the place with the largest Biodiversity in the world

Due to the relatively explosive economic and demographic rise of the country in the last century, Brazil's ability to protect its environmental habitats has increasingly come under threat. Extensive logging in the nation's forests, particularly the Amazon, both official and unofficial, destroys areas the size of a small country each year, and potentially a diverse variety of interesting plants and animals.

Being a hotspot for fauna and flora, Brazil houses many thousands of species, most of them still undiscovered. By 2020, it is estimated that at least 50% of the species resident in Brazil will be eradicated.

As several of these specimens possess special characteristics, or are built in an interesting way, some of their capabilities may be copied for use in technology (see bionics).Template:Cn The revenues derived from such plans may still hold the key to conserve the country's animal and plant species.

Demographics

Template:Main Template:See also

The dominant ancestry among Brazilians is Portuguese through the descendants of the early Portuguese colonists (from the 16th century onwards) and later Portuguese immigrants (19th and 20th centuries), followed by Italian immigrants. The settlement of Portuguese started in Brazil after 1532, when the active process of colonisation began since the founding of São Vicente. Until independence in 1822, the Portuguese were the only European nation that successfully settled in Brazil, and most of Brazil's culture is based on that of Portugal.

Other European countries had some presence during the Colonial period. The Dutch and the French tried to colonise Brazil during the 17th century, but their presence lasted only a few decades.

The original Amerindian population of Brazil (between 3-5 million) has in large part been exterminated or assimilated into the Portuguese population. Since the beginning of Brazil's colonisation, intermarriage between the Portuguese and Native Brazilians has been common. Today, there are 700,000 natives in Brazil, composing less than 1% of the national population.

Brazil has a large black population, descended from African slaves brought to the country from the 16th century until the 19th century. More than 3 million Africans were brought to Brazil until the end of slave trafficking in 1850. They were mainly from Angola, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, the Ivory Coast and São Tomé e Príncipe. The African population in Brazil has mixed substantially with the Portuguese, resulting in a large mixed-race population.

Image:149655.jpeg
Northern Brazilians with Native makeup

Beginning in the 19th century, the Brazilian government stimulated European immigration to substitute for the manpower of the former slaves. The first non-Portuguese immigrants to settle in Brazil were German, in 1824. In 1869 the first Polish immigrants settled in Brazil. However, strong European immigration to Brazil began only after 1875, when immigration from Italy, Portugal and Spain increased. According to the Memorial do Imigrante, between 1870 and 1953, Brazil attracted nearly 5.5 million immigrants approximately 1,550,000 Italians, 1,470,000 Portuguese, 650,000 Spaniards, 210,000 Germans, 190,000 Japanese, 120,000 Poles and 650,000 of many other nationalities. These figures may be a serious undercounting of the actual numbers of immigrants, since the spouses were often not counted; there were large numbers of illegals never counted; the family names were changed to hide national origins; and Brazilian record-keeping was unreliable. Brazil is home to the largest Italian population outside of Italy, with 25 million Italians and Italian-descended Brazilians. Brazil is also home to the largest Lebanese community in the world, roughly 8 million.

Starting in the early 20th century, Brazil also received a large number of Asians: Korean, Chinese, Taiwanese, and Japanese immigrants. The Japanese are the largest East Asian minority in Brazil, and Japanese-Brazilians are the largest Japanese population outside of Japan (1.5 million).

Brazil's population is mostly concentrated along the coast, with a lower population density in the interior. The population of the southern states is mainly of European descent, while the majority of the inhabitants of the north and northeast are of mixed ancestry (Amerindians, Africans and Europeans).

Ethnicity and race

Image:Soberanas festadauva.jpg
Southern Brazilians during a local party

The ancestry of Brazil's modern-day population is relatively diverse, and includes Amerindian (mainly Tupi and Guarani, among others), European (mainly Portuguese, Italian, German and Spanish) and African (mainly Bantu and Yoruba) ancestry, with minorities of East Asian (mainly Japanese), Lebanese, and Arab Syrians (see also mitochondrial DNA studies that indicate a high degree of admixture).

Southern Brazil has a large majority of people of European descent, and Southeastern Brazil also has a majority of white people. In Central-West Brazil the number of whites is somewhat equal to the number of Afro-Brazilian and multiracial Brazilians. Northeastern Brazil has a majority of people of Afro-Brazilian descent, while in Northern Brazil the Amerindian ancestry is predominant. According to Brazil's 1988 Constitution, racism is an unbailable crime and must be met with imprisonment.<ref>CERD Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Thirteenth periodic report of States parties due in 1994 : Brazil. 22/02/96.CERD/C/263/Add.10. (State Party Report)</ref>

The 2000 IBGE census found Brazil to be made up of:

Languages

Template:Main

Image:Blum3.jpg
German themed building in Blumenau, a southern Brazilian city, indicating the strong influence of immigrants in the city.

Portuguese is the only official language of Brazil. It is spoken by the entire population and is virtually the only language used in schools, newspapers, radio, TV and for all business and administrative purposes. Moreover, Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language part of Brazilian national identity. Portuguese as spoken in Brazil has developed independently of the European mother tongue, and it has undergone less phonetic changes than the language spoken in Portugal, thus it is often said that the "language of Camões", who lived in the 16th Century, sounded closer to modern Brazilian Portuguese, than to the language spoken in Portugal today, and that his work is poetically more perfect when read the Brazilian way. Brazilian Portuguese has notable influences from Amerindian and African languages. Generally, native speakers of each variant can understand one another, but there are several significant phonological, lexical and orthographic differences. (See also Brazilian Portuguese.)

Minority languages

Many Amerindian languages are spoken daily in indigenous communities, primarily in Northern Brazil. Although many of these communities have significant contact with Portuguese, today there are incentives for teaching native languages.

Some others languages are spoken by descendants of immigrants, who are usually bilingual, in small rural communities in Southern Brazil. The most important are the Brazilian German dialects, such as Riograndenser Hunsrückisch and the Pomeranian language, and also the Talian, based on the Italian Venetian language. In the city of São Paulo, Japanese can be heard in the immigrant neighbourhoods, like Liberdade.

English is part of the official high school curriculum, but comparatively few Brazilians are truly fluent in the language. Spanish is understood to varying degrees by most Portuguese speakers, since they are similar languages.

Societal Issues

Poverty

Image:00440.jpg
Curitiba, one of the most developed cities in Brazil

Despite being a large country with extensive resources and a huge economy, Brazil currently has more than 22 million people living in state of extreme povertyTemplate:Citation-needed. Including those living in state of relative poverty, this number can rise to more than 53 million people (around 30% of the country's population) living with an income insufficient for their basic needsTemplate:Citation-needed. This is a critical issue, and is in part attributed to the country's economic inequality, considered one of the world's highest according to the Gini coefficient index.

Poverty in Brazil is most visually represented by the various favelas, a great number of slums in the country's metropolitan areas and in upcountry remote regions with low rates of economic and social development. There is also great differences in wealth and welfare between regions. While the Northeast region has chronic problems due to the semi-arid climate in the inner regions, as its periodic droughts affect millions of people, there are many cities in the south region with First World-like Socioeconomic standards [2].

The most recent attempt to mitigate these problems is being tried by current President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who has proposed a hunger-eradication program (Fome Zero) and raised the budget for a handful of wealth distribution programs that were previously established, but there is much discussion over the effectiveness of these approaches.

In addition, roughly 16 million people in Brazil are officially considered illiterate [3].

Government Issues

In the last 12 years, Brazil's tax rate increased gradually from around 28% of the country's GDP to more than 37% [4]. In spite of this, not enough improvement (in some cases, none at all) was seen in the public services offered by either the federal or most of the state and municipal governments to make this increase considered fair by the population [5]. There are believed to be two major causes for this:

  • High interest rates paid by the government on its debts [6].
  • Widespread corruption [7].
Since the end of the country's military regime and the re-establishment of freedom of the press in the country, constant scandals involving members of the Executive, Legislative and Judiciary governments accused of participating in schemes of bribery, embezzlement, money laundering and anonymous banking have come to surface.

Culture

Template:Main

Image:Niteroi Museu de Arte Contemporanea 2005-03-15.jpg
The Niterói Contemporary Art Museum is another impressive example of the Brazilian architecture.

The culture of Brazil is rooted in the culture of Portugal. The Portuguese colonists and immigrants brought the Catholic faith, the Portuguese language and many traditions and customs that still influence the modern-day Brazilian culture. As a multiracial country, its culture also absorbed other influences. The Amerindian peoples influenced Brazil's language and cuisine and the Africans, brought as slaves, largely influenced Brazil's music, dance, cuisine and language. Italian and German immigrants came in large numbers and their influences are felt closer to the South of Brazil.

Religion

Image:Redentor.jpg
The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is the most famous landmark in Brazil.

Template:Main According to the IBGE census [8]:

  • 73.6% of the population is Catholic, making Brazil the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
  • Followers of Protestantism are rising in number, currently at 15.4%. adding the Catholic ones, Brazil posesses the second largest christian population in the world, only behind the United States.
  • 7.4% of the population consider themselves agnostics, atheists or without a religion.
  • Spiritism constitutes 1.3% of the population (about 2.3 million).
  • 1.8% are members of other religions. Some of these are Latter-day Saints (900,000 followers), Jehovah's Witnesses (600,000) Buddhism (215,000), Seicho-No-Ie (151,000), Judaism (230,000), and Islam (27,000) [9].
  • 0.3% are followers of African traditional religions such as Candomblé, Macumba, and Umbanda.
  • Some practice a mixture of different religions, such as Catholicism, Candomblé, and indigenous American religion combined.

Sports

Template:Main

The most popular sport in Brazil is football (soccer), and the country is renowned for the quality of its players, including Ronaldo, Pelé, Jairzinho, Rivelino, Zico, Romário, Carlos Alberto, Rivaldo, Roberto Carlos, Garrincha, Kaká and the current holder of the title of best football player in the world, Ronaldinho. The Brazilian national football team has been victorious in the World Cup tournament a record five times.

Brazil has also achieved success in other international sports, mainly volleyball, basketball, tennis, gymnastics and auto racing.

Many sports have originated in Brazil:

Science and technology

Template:Main article

Some of Brazil's most important technology nodes are located in São José dos Campos, Campinas, São Carlos, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife and São Paulo.

Brazilian Information Technology is considered one of the most advanced in the world. Catering for the internal market, Brazilian IT is recognised as a leader in financial services, defense, CRM, eGovernment, and healthcare.

The government of Brazil is attempting a switch to free software and operating systems in place of proprietary software. <ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

See also

Fauna and flora

Footnotes and references

<references />

External links

Template:Sisterlinks Template:Portal

Government and administration
Information and statistics
Economy and Business
News and Opinion
Tourism
Brazilian Communities
  • BraCCA — BraCCA - Brazilian Community Council of Australia (in Portuguese and English)


Template:Brazil


Template:States of Brazil Template:South America Template:G15

Template:Latinunion Template:Mercosur Template:SACN Template:CPLP Template:OAS Template:North Atlantic Ocean Template:South Atlantic Ocean

Personal tools
Navigation
Supported Websites
links
Shop